三大从句讲义及习题版

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宾语从句专项 宾语从句应用注意事项:1.时态一致 2.人称一致 3.陈述语气 4.标点随主句 一、概念 宾语从句的宾语部分中有一个从句充当宾语。

二、可接宾语从句的动词 say 、tell 、think、 know、 see、 hear、 hope、 guess、 find、 feel 等,或由形容词构成的系表结构, 如:afraid、 sure、 glad、 sorry 等 三、宾语从句的标点符号。

宾语从句的标点符号取决于主句,如果主句是陈述句,句尾用句号;如果主句是疑问句,句尾用问号。

四、引导词。

1、that (从句是陈述句时,引导词用 that ,它本身无词义,不充当成分,在口语中可省略,但在正式场合不 可省。

) 2、if 或 whether (从句是一般疑问句时用 if 或 whether ,含义是“是否” 。

) if、whether 一般情况下可以互换,但在构成 whether…or not 句式只用 whether 3、连接代词、连接副词(从句是特殊疑问句时用) 连接代词(what、 which、 who、 whose ) 连接副词(when、 where、 how 、why ) 五、宾语从句的同义句转换。

在宾语从句中经常会出现“疑问词+动词不定式”的结构,它可与“疑问词+主语+情态动词+动词原形”进行同义句 转换。

Can you tell me how I can get to the station? Can you tell me how to get to the station? 六、宾语从句的语序。

宾语从句的语序都用陈述句语序(即正常的主谓语序) He says that Jim will miss a lot of lessons . He asked whether we should hold a sports meeting . Do you know what the population of Dalian is ? 七、宾语从句的时态。

1、主句是一般现在时,从句可根据需要选用任何时态。

He says that he is good at English He says that he has been ill for two days I don’t know if he will come tomorrow 2、主句是一般过去时,从句可根据需要用相应的过去某种时态。

(即一般过去时、过去将来时、过去完成时等) He asked me where I lived He said that she had been ill for two days She said that she would return soon 3、当从句讲述的是客观事实或真理时,从句时态不受主句的影响,都用一般现在时。

The teacher said “light travels faster than sound” He said that the earth is round 特例:Could you tell me …委婉的语气,常按照一般现在时处理。

Could you tell me where the nearest hospital is ? 八、语从句的从句中不再有助动词。

即一般现在时的助动词 do ,does ,一般过去时的助动词 did. Do you like speaking English ?He wants to know .(改为宾语从句) He wants to know if you like speaking English 九、如果简单句变成了宾语从句,那么其谓语动词要相应的变化。

常见的一般过去时的动词应用过去式;一般现在时 的如果主语是第三人称单数的,动词要用单三形式,如果主语不是第三人称单数,动词都用原形;其他时态变成相应 的时态的结构即可。

十、宾语从句变否定句。

如果主句的主语是第一人称 I 或 we 时,并且谓语动词多为 think、guess、believe 等表示心理活动的词时,变 否定句要否定转移,即否定主句。

否则,变否定句看从句。

I think chicken can swim (变否定句) I don’t think chicken can swim He said that he would go shopping(变否定句) …… He said that he would not go shopping 一、选择填空: ( ) 1. It's so dark. I can't find out _______ it's a boy _______ a girl. A. if, and A. has gone A. which A. what A. if, is B. which B. where,were B. that, and B. had gone B. whether C. why C. that ,was C. either, or C. went C. why D. that D. if, were D. you don't D. whether, or D. go D. that ( ) 2. Could you tell me if he _______ to Shanghai? ( ) 3. He told me _______ she would catch the early bus. ( ) 4. Mrs. Green asked me _______ I would go with her. ( ) 5. I don't know _______ the coat _______ cheap enough. ( ) 6. Call you tell me why _______ yesterday? A. you didn't come come ( ) 7. He said that they _______ Yunnan. A. have been to A. how many A. what they do do ( ) 10. I want to know _______ his homework yesterday evening. A. if he finished finished ( ) 11. Do you know what _______ this time yesterday? A. they are doing B. are they doing C. they were doing D. were they doing ( ) 12. Excuse me, can you tell me _______ ? A. why was the train late train is late ( ) 13. Do you know where _______ ? Someone is looking for him. A. he is A. she is staying A. was, to meet A. would go B. he was B. she had stayed B. would go, has B. go C. is he C. did she stay C. will go, was going to C. went D. has gone D. was he D. she stay D. will go, will ( ) 14. He wanted to know how long _______ in hospital. ( ) 15. My brother said he _______ going _______ his friend the next day. ( ) 16. He told me that he _______ to London the next day. B. why the train was late C. why is the train late D. why the B. whether he had finished C. had she finished D. has she B. had gone to B. what C. have gone to C. which D. whether D. what did they D. has gone to ( ) 8. Jack isn't sure _______ students there are in his class. ( ) 9. Can you tell me _______ yesterday? B. what they did C. what do they do B. did you not come C. didn't you come

( ) 17. He said that light _______ much faster than sound. A. traveled A. turn A. is, third ( ) 20. Do you know _______ ? A. is it whose pen A. who are you B. whose pen is it B. who you are C. whose pen it is D. it is whose pen D. who you be ( ) 21. Can you tell me _______ ? C. you are who B. will travel B. turned C. travels C. has turned B. is, fourth D. is traveling D. turns C. was, fourth D. was, third ( ) 18. Our teacher said that the moon _______ around the earth. ( ) 19. He said that April _______ the _______ month of a year. 宾语从句答案 一、 01-- 05 DADCA 06--10 ABABA 11--15CBABA 16--20ACDBC 定语从句讲解 一.定语从句 1.注意英汉差异:汉语的定语无论多长都放在被修饰词的前面,而英语中的定语则不然,是一个词时,放在被修饰词 的前面, 如: ①.a beautiful girl ②.a lovely boy 是两个以上的词组、短语或从句则放在被修饰词的后面, 如: ③.She is the girl in red. 她就是穿红衣的女孩。

④.The lady carr a bag full of money. 那位女士背了个装满钱的包。

⑤.He is the man who you are looking for. 她就是你在找的人。

2.分清主句与从句,看究竟哪个句子缺少成分。

如上面第 5: 主句:He is the man 从句:who you are looking for 在从句中,looking for 的宾语是 the man.因此选用关系代词 who(whom)放置于句首,便是定语从句。

3.从句中做宾语的关系代词可以省略,故第 5 题可以写成: He is the man you are looking for. 二.定语从句(从句部分)

1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语 2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后 Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please. 3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词 (1)先行词一般是名词和不定代词, 如:some-, any-, every-和 no 与-boy, -thing 的合成词;或 all、none、any、some、that、those 等代词。

数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作先行词。

(2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。

必须注意两点: ①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。

This is the place which is worth visiting. ②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分,其意思就是先行词的意义,所以在从句中不能重复其意。

There are many places we can visit(them)in China. 4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词 关系代词:which, that, who, whom, whose, as。

关系副词:when, where, why。

that 偶尔也作关系副词。

5、确定关系词的步骤 (1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。

(2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。

一.关系代词 which 的用法 先行词 格 事、物、动物 主格 所有格 宾格 which whose=of which which 1. English is a language. It is spoken all over the world. => English is a language which is spoken all over the world. 英语是世界各地都在使用的语言。

2. He looked for a car. The engine of the car was in good condition. =>He looked for a car the engine of which was in good condition. 3. Where is the parcel?

We received it this morning. => Where is the parcel (which) we received this morning? 今天早上我们收到的包裹在哪里? 二.关系代词 that 的用法 先行词 格 人、物、动物 主格 所有格 宾格 that whose that 1. He 's in love with a girl that/who has red hair. 他正和一位红发女孩谈恋爱。

2. Baseball is the sport that/ which most boys like. 棒球是大多数男孩喜欢的运动。

三.注意 that/ which 区别: 在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用 that 而不用 which (1)先行词被形容词最高级修饰 1. Today is the coldest day (that) we have ever experienced. 今天是我们经历过最寒冷的一天。

(2)先行词被序数词修饰 2. The first thing (that) you have to do is to study mathematics. 你必须做的第一件事就是学习数学。

(3)先行词中既有人又有物时。

3. The driver and the car that had fallen into the sea were quickly recovered. 掉到海里的司机和车子很快就被捞起来了。

(4)主句中已有疑问词 who 或 which 时 4.1 Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting? 4.2 Which is the picture (that) Mary painted? 在大会上被表扬的那位妇女是谁? 哪一幅是 Mary 画的画? (5)先行词被 only、any、few、little、no、all、one of、the same、the very 等修饰时。

5. Li Ming is the only one that wants to be a teacher. 李明是唯一一个想当老师的学生之一。

(6)先行词为 all、much、little、none、few、one、something、anything 等不定代词时。

6.1 All (that) he said was not true. 他所说的并非全是真的。

6.2 We haven't got much that we can offer you. 我们没有多少东西能身你们。

6.3 My brother fixed almost anything that needed repairing. 我哥哥几乎修理了任何一个需要修理的东西。

(7)有两个定语从句,其中一个关系代词已用 which,另一个宜用 that. 7. Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. 爱迪生办了一家工厂,生产过去从未见到过的东西。

在定语从句中,下列情况的关系词宜用 which 而不用 that (1) 可用于非限定性定语从句中,代替物、整个主句或主句中的一部分。

(2) 可用于介词之后,即介词 + which (代物)。

1.Is that the man? You lent the money to him. Is that the man (whom/that) you lent the money to . 那位就是跟你借钱的人吗? Is that the man to whom you lent the money ?(这里的 whom 不能被 that 代替) 2. The train for which I am waiting is now half an hour late. 那班我正在等的火车现在已晚了半小时。

3. This is the habit which you must try to do with. 这是你必须改掉的习惯。

(如果是固定短语,介词不能被提到关系代词前) 四.关系代词 who/whom 的用法 先行词 格 人 主格 所有格 宾格 who Whose = of whom who / whom 1. This is the man with whom I worked. 这位就是和我一起工作的人 2. This is the teacher who often tells jokes. 这就是那个常讲笑话的老师。

五.关系词 who 与 that 的区别 关系词 who 与 that 指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词 (1)当主句是 there be 句型时,关系词用 who。

(2)先行词是为 anyone、those、someone、everyone、one 等词时,关系词用 who。

(3)当主句是 who 作疑问词时,关系词用 that。

Who is that girl that is standing by the window? (4)whom 在从句中只作宾语,可被 who 取代。

六.关系代词 whose 的用法

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